My answer to What are the things that need to be considered when doing a risk assessment?
Answer by Håkon Olsen:
The process can be summed up in three layers – the continuous flows of stakeholder communication, risk assessment itself, and the risk treatment.
Here’s my answer from Quora:
Risk assessments can be performed at many levels of granularity but the same general structure of the process can be used for all such assessments. There is an ISO standard that describes this approach which is generally recognized as best practice (ISO 31000). This involves:
- Defining the context
- Identification or risk factors
- Analysis of risk (likelihood and impact)
- Evaluation of risk
- Treatment planning
- Monitoring of risk and treatment
- Stakeholder communication and consulting
The context includes the scope of your assessment, who the stakeholders are, what is considered acceptable and not acceptable risk levels and how the value chain is affected by the risk exposure.
Identificaiton of risk factors can be done in many ways, but the use of “guidewords” is very common, hooks to get the ideas running. This is a sort of guided brainstorming, taking past experience into account but also avoiding disregarding events that have not yet happened. Typical guidewords for the risk to an office building could be; fire, bomb threat, hurricane, power outage, robbery. The list of guidewords must be tailored to the scope, and the context in general.
Analysis of risk means assessing how likely each scenario is, and what the potential impact can be. This can be done in a purely qualitative way, or it can be a sofisticated mathematial modeling excercise involving computer simulations and advanced statistics. The point is to arrive at an assessment of how likely something is to happen, and how bad it would be.
In evaluation of the risk you sort which risks must be reacted to, and which ones you can disregard. You typically prioritize risks that are both likely and with a potentially serious outcome. Thse risks are usually unacceptable to leave as they are. Then there is an intermediate ground with risks that are somewhat likely, or somewhat bad, or bouth, that you may want to do something with. In many areas these risks are treated if actions can be found that will reduce them without adding excessive cost – often referred to keeping risk ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable – a UK legal concept).
Treatment planning is all about what you do about your risks. You can build barriers to reduce the likelihood of the event happening (automatic pressure relief valves on pressure cookers), or that will reduce the impact (sprinklers to fight fires). This is called mitigation. You can also in many cases defer the risk to other partis through buying insurance – but this is not always possible. You can also avoid the risk if you cannot find a reasonable way to deal with it by stopping the risky activity, or redesigning whatever it is you do. Finally, you may also choose to accept the high rist because you think the rewards are great enough to justify it.
Over to practice; you need to monitor the risk level and the integrity or quality of the barriers you have built. If risk is building up you need to take action. This is a continuous activity, something banks, chemical factories and airlines do a lot of.
Finally, and perhaps one of the most overlooked parts of risk assessments, is communication. You have a lot of stakeholders that you should have identified in the concept description. Keeping them involved and engaged throughout your assets lifecycle is key to managing risk effectively. You can read more about the people management aspect of stakeholder engagement here:(my blog – lots of stuff about risk assessment there, have a look around!)