Commercial VPN’s: the Twitter security awareness flamewar edition

A lot of people worry about information security, and perhaps rightly so. We are steadily plagued by ransomware, data breaches, phishing attacks and password stealers; being reminded of good security habits regularly is generally a good thing. Normally, this does not result on angry people. Except for on the Internet of course, and perhaps in particular on Twitter, the platform made for online rage.

Being angry on the Internet: does a VPN help?

Here’s a recent Tweet from infosec awareness blogger John Opdenakker (you can read his blog here

If you click this one you will get some responses, including some harsh ones:

And another one. Felt like an attack, perhaps it was an attack?

So far the disagreement is not quite clear, just that some people obviously think VPN’s are of little use for privacy and security (and I tend to agree). There are of course nicer ways of stating such opinions. I even tried to meddle, hopefully in a somewhat less tense voice. Or maybe not?

This didn’t really end too well, I guess this was the end of it (not directed at me but at @desdotdev.

This is not a very good way to discuss something. My 2 cents here, beyond “be nice to each other”, was really just a link to this quite good argument why commercial VPN’s are mostly not very useful (except if you want to bypass geoblocking or hide your ip from the websites you visit):

A link to a more sound discussion of the VPN debacle

Risks and VPN marketing

For a good writeup on VPN’s not making you secure, I suggest you read the gist above. Of course, everything depends on everything, and in particular your threat model does. If you fear that evil hackers are sitting on your open WiFi network and looking at all your web traffic to non-https sites, sure, a VPN will protect you. But most sites use HTTPS, and if it is a bank or something similar they will also use HSTS (which makes sure the initial connection is safe too). So what are the typical risks of the coffee shop visiting internet browsing person?

  • Email: malware and phishing emails trying to trick you into sharing too much information or installing malware
  • Magecart infected online shopping venues
  • Shoulder surfers reading your love letters from the chair behind you
  • Someone stealing your phone or laptop while you are trying to fetch that cortado
  • Online bullying threatening your mental health while discussing security awareness on Twitter
  • Secret Chinese agents spying on your dance moves on TikTok

Does a VPN help here? No, it doesn’t. It encrypts the traffic between your computer, and a computer controlled by the VPN company. Such companies typically register in countries with little oversight. Usually the argument is “to avoid having to deliver any data to law enforcement” and besides “we don’t keep logs of anything”. Just completely by coincidence the same countries tend to be tax havens that allows you to hide corporate owner structures as well. Very handy. So, instead of trusting your ISP, you set up a tunnel to a computer entirely controlled by a company owned by someone you don’t know, in a jurisdiction that allows them to do so without much oversight, where they promise not to log anything. I am not sure this is a win for privacy or security. And it doesn’t help against China watching your TikTok videos or a Magecart gang stealing your credit card information on your favourite online store.

One of the more popular VPN providers is ExpressVPN. They provide a 10-step security test, which asks mostly useful questions about security habits (although telling random web pages your preferred messaging app, search engine and browser may not be the best idea) – and it also asks you “do you use a VPN”. If you answer “no” – here’s their security advice for you:

ExpressVPN marketing: do you use a VPN?

It is true that it will make it hard to snoop on you on an open wireless network. But this is not in most people’s threat models – not really. The big problems are usually those in our bullet point list above. ExpressVPN is perhaps one of the least scare-mongering VPN sellers, and even they try to scare you into “but security/privacy anxiety” buying their product. The arguments about getting around geoblocking and hiding your ip from the websites you visit are OK – if you have a need to do that. Most people don’t.

When VPN’s tell you to buy their service to stay safe online, they are addressing a very narrow online risk driver – that is negligible in most people’s threat models.

So what should I do when browsing at a coffee shop?

If you worry about the network itself, a VPN may be a solution to that, provided you trust the VPN itself. You could run your own VPN with a cloud provider if you want to and like to do technical stuff. Or, you could just use your phone to connect to the internet if you have a reasonable data plan. I would rather trust a regulated cell provider than an unregulated anonymous corporation in the Caribbean.

Email, viruses and such: be careful with links and attachments, run endpoint security and keep your computer fully up to date. This takes you a long way, and a VPN does not help at all!

Magecart: this one can be hard to spot, use a credit card when shopping online, and check your statements carefully every month. If your bank provides a virtual card with one-time credit card numbers that is even better. Does a VPN help? No.

Theft of phones, laptops and coffee mugs? Keep an eye on your stuff. Does a VPN help? Nope.

Online bullying? Harder to fight this one but don’t let them get to you. Perhaps John is onto something here? If you feel harassed, use the block button 🙂

Secret Chinese agents on TikTok? No solution there, except not showing your dance moves on TikTok. Don’t overshare. Does a VPN help? Probably not.

When does cybersecurity awareness training actually work?

Cybersecurity awareness training has become a central activity in many firms. It takes time, requires planning and management follow-up, and is very often mandatory for all employees. But does it work? That depends – first and foremost on people’s feelings towards cybersecurity.

A very informal survey in my network shows that most people don’t receive any awareness training at all at work, and among those that do, there are more people who say it does not change their behaviors, than those that think it has had a positive impact.

The results of a simple survey show that most people receive no cybersecurity awareness training, and that among those that do, people do more often than not judge it to be of little value.

At the end of last year I participated in a local meeting in the Norwegian Association for Quality and Risk Management, where I heard a very interesting talk by Maria Bartnes (Twitter: @mariabartnes) from SINTEF on user behaviors and cybersecurity training. She argued that training is only effective if people are motivated for the training – and for that they need to have beliefs and goals that are well aligned with the organization they are a part of. She portrayed this in a matrix with various employee stereotypes, with “feelings towards policies and company goals” on one axis and “risk understanding” on the other axis – which I found was a very effective way of communicating the fact that all employees are not created equal 🙂 . You have people ranging from technical risk experts that love the company and policies they are working for, and you have people who don’t understand risk at all, and at the same time are feeling angry or resentful towards both their company and its policies – and you have everything in between.

Another issue is that many organizations tend to make training mandatory and the same for all. It makes little sense to force your experts to sit through basic introductions that are second nature to them anyway – a lot of knowledge workers experience this when HR departments push e-learning modules to all employees.

What does it all mean?

Some people have argued that security awareness training is completely useless. This is probably going a bit too far but there are clear limits to what can be achieved by “training” of any kind when it comes to changing people’s behaviors. We use computers by habit – the way we act when we read e-mails, research the internet, write Word documents or compile code – it is all “second nature” when you are experienced at it. Changing those habits is hard and it does not happen automagically through training.

Focusing on motivation and feelings is a good start – without the motivation to do so, it is very unlikely that users that exhibit risky behaviors will make any effort to change those behaviors.

Continuous effort is needed to change behaviors, to create new habits. This means that employees must not only receive the knowledge about the “why” and the “how”, but they must also attain practical knowledge by doing. When we realize that, we see that it becomes very important not to demotivate employees that already have positive feelings about cybersecurity. Forcing the highly motivated and technically competent to take very basic e-learning lessons may kill that motivation – and thus increase your organizations risk exposure.

It also becomes very important to motivate those that are feeling resentful, both  the technically competent ones, and those in the “worst-case corner” of resentful and low technical competency. Motivation comes before technical know-how.

For cybersecurity awareness training to have a positive effect it is thus necessary to tailor the contents to each employee based on skills and motivation. Further, the real work really starts after the training – it is the action of “doing” that changes habits, not the mere presentation of information about phishing e-mails and strong passwords. This means you need leadership, and you need change agents.

Use your technically skilled and highly motivated people as change agents. They can help motivate others, and they can exemplify good behaviors. Let the these supercyberusers support management, and educate management. And bring the managers on board on following up security regularly – not to outsource it to the IT department. Entertaining abuse cases for discussion in meetings can help, as well as publicly praising employees that make an effort to bring the maturity of both their own security practices, and the security maturity of the company as a whole to a new level.


Make sure you adapt your training to both motivation and technical skills of those who receive it. See maturity work in the area of cybersecurity as a part of your organization’s continuous improvement program – embed it in the way your organization works instead of relying solely on information campaigns. Use change agents and inspiring leaders in you organization to change the way the organization behaves from the individual to the firm as a whole. That is the only way to success with building security awareness that actually changes behaviors.